1. Introduction 2. Phonetics 3. Phonology 4. Morphology 5. Word Classes 6. Syntax 7. Semantics 8. Pragmatics 9. Discourse 10. Prosody 11. Language in the Social World 12. Language Change 13. Language Contact and Areal Linguistics 14. First Language Acquisition 15. Second Language Acquisition
Language Profiles
1. Kabardian 2. Goemai 3. Manange 4. Finnish 5. Nuuchahnulth (Nootka) 6. South Conchucos Quechua 7. Tsez 8. Bardi 9. Lowland Chontal 10. Manambu 11. African-American English 12. Indonesian 13. Seneca 14. Akkadian
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How Languages Work

An Introduction to Language and Linguistics, 2nd ed.

Edited by Carol Genetti

How Languages Work book cover

Student Resources for
How Languages Work
An Introduction to Language and Linguistics, 2nd ed.

Here you will find a range of supplementary materials, interactive questions and exercises, which have been arranged by chapter and language profile. This site has been formatted with mobile phones and tablets in mind. Please use the menu link (Menu Icon) at the top to expand the section you require. If you would like more information regarding the supplementary materials, or to contact the interactive content designer, please click the info link (Info Icon) at the top.

The specific materials available for each chapter are referenced in the first sidebar. In addition, the wireless (Wireless Icon) icon is used in the text when you should access these materials or explore other online resources.


  1. Interactive IPA Chart with sound files for American and British English pronunciations of English phones. You can toggle back and forth between seeing the whole IPA chart and the IPA set for English.
  2. An IPA keyboard to type an IPA transcription by clicking on the symbols in the IPA chart; this produces a text which can be copied and pasted into documents.
  3. Glossary with terms indexed by chapter and language profile.

Chapters and Language Profiles

  1. Vocabulary quizzes with multiple-choice questions--one set you must choose the correct definition, the other set you choose the correct terminology.
  2. Reading quizzes follow the format of the vocabulary quizzes and vary depending on the content of the chapters.
  3. Interactive materials vary by chapter, but include things like step-by-step analysis modules where students work through problems and get feedback if they do something incorrectly.
  4. Analysis guides for some chapters providing step-by-step processes for different types of linguistic analysis.
  5. Writing for Linguistics documents explicitly discuss how one presents linguistic analysis in academic prose.
  6. Audio files related to particular examples in the chapters and language profiles.
  7. Answers to Stop and Reflect Boxes that you will encounter throughout the textbook.
  8. Transcripts for chapters where transcribed audio data is relevant.
  9. A variety of materials associated with the Language Profiles. Materials will vary significantly across the language profiles.